COVID-19_SARS-CoV-2 and fibrosis

Low neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.2.75.2, BQ.1.1, and XBB.1 by parental mRNA vaccine or a BA.5-bivalent booster. Nat Med (2022) Low neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.2.75.2, BQ.1.1 and XBB.1 by parental mRNA vaccine or a BA.5 bivalent booster | Nature Medicine

did this study look at mix of Moderna Pfizer vac?

hope any updates on the most recent variants, BQ1, BQ1.1

seminars/conferences would get your most updated info, which is usually ahead of journal publication.

check with CDC updates

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BQ.1.1 and XBB have immune-evasion capabilities that are greater than those of earlier omicron variants. Efficacy of Antiviral Agents against Omicron Subvariants BQ.1.1 and XBB | NEJM

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imdevimab–casirivimab, tixagevimab–cilgavimab, sotrovimab, and bebtelovimab may not be effective against BQ.1.1 or XBB.

“XBB carry additional substitutions in the receptor-binding domain of the spike (S) protein, which is the major target for vaccines and therapeutic monoclonal antibodies for Covid-19. These subvariants may, therefore, be more immune-evasive.”

transfusion of COVID-19 convalescent plasma benefits for immunocompromised Covid patients

The studies summarize the recent revisions of guidelines by scientific societies such as ECIL-9, CDC/IDSA, and AABB, which recommend the use of COVID-19 convalescent plasma in patients who are immunocompromised, especially after concerns related to the prevalence of monoclonal antibody-resistant SARS-CoV-2 variants. The efficacy of COVID-19 convalescent plasma in patients who are immunocompromised and had reported symptoms for weeks or months suggests that it retains clinical efficacy until the recipient is seronegative and there is no irreversible parenchymal damage. The study also notes that Vax-Plasma, which is COVID-19 convalescent plasma from vaccinated donors, is now widely available from regular donors and retains higher neutralizing antibody titers and efficacy against most SARS-CoV-2 variants. However, the study has several limitations, including that it includes exploratory analysis of lower epistemological levels of evidence, and it did not have access to patient-level data for many of the studies included in this article. The study concludes that convalescent plasma was associated with a mortality benefit among hospitalized patients with primary or secondary immunosuppression and COVID-19, but more well-controlled, published data is needed in these important patient populations to confirm the clinical use of COVID-19 convalescent plasma in immunocompromised patients.

The next generation of coronavirus vaccines

  1. Self-amplifying RNA (saRNA) vaccines also include instructions for an enzyme that instructs cells to churn out more copies of spike; 2. Proteins on nanoparticles: vaccines is made of proteins that self-assemble into a soccer-ball-shaped structure, studded with spike or RBD; 3. Nasal vaccines.
    The next generation of coronavirus vaccines: a graphical guide
  • Long COVID occurs in at least 10% of SARS-CoV-2 infections and affects multiple organ systems, with over 200 identified symptoms.
  • At least 65 million individuals worldwide are estimated to have long COVID, with cases increasing daily.
  • Similarities with other viral-onset illnesses such as myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome and postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome have been found.
  • The current diagnostic and treatment options for long COVID are insufficient, and clinical trials must be prioritized that address leading hypotheses.
  • The upregulation of proinflammatory and innate immune effector genes CD47, IL-6, and JUN were observed in COVID lung fibrosis
  • Combined blockade of inflammation and fibrosis was used to treat a humanized COVID lung fibrosis model, which showed amelioration of fibrosis and restoration of innate immune equilibrium